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As part of the submission process, authors are required to check off their submission's compliance with all of the following items, and submissions may be returned to authors that do not adhere to these guidelines.

  • The submission has not been previously published, nor is it before another journal for consideration (or an explanation has been provided in Comments to the Editor).
  • The submission file is in OpenOffice, Microsoft Word, or RTF document file format.
  • Where available, URLs for the references have been provided.
  • The text is single-spaced; uses a 12-point font; employs italics, rather than underlining (except with URL addresses); and all illustrations, figures, and tables are placed within the text at the appropriate points, rather than at the end.
  • The text adheres to the stylistic and bibliographic requirements outlined in the Author Guidelines.

CNU Journal of Higher Education, Cebu Normal University’s official research journal, accepts faculty, staff and student research and scholarly papers from all fields or disciplines. Submitted
manuscripts for publication in CNU-JHE will be reviewed by at least two referees (external and/or internal),
chosen for their expertise, and following the double-blind refereeing system. Such manuscripts will be
selected for publication based on the reviews of these independent referees.
The submission of a manuscript implies: that the work described has not been published before (except
in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture; that its publication has been approved by all coauthors, if any; as well as by the responsible authorities at the institute or agency where the work has been
carried out; that, if and when the manuscript is accepted for publication, the authors agree to the automatic
transfer of the copyright to the CNU-JHE; that the manuscript will not be published elsewhere in any language
without the consent of the Journal Editorial Board.

Preparation of Manuscripts
Authors must submit electronically prepared manuscripts in Microsoft Word, Font: Arial, size 12. Papers should
be double spaced, on one side of the 8 ½” x 11" size, with 1" margins on all sides. All pages should have
continuous line numbers on the right side of the page, except for the title page.
The title page (page 1) should contain the article title, author/s, affiliation/s, and the name and complete
mailing address (and telephone number, fax number, e-mail) of the person to whom correspondence should be
sent. Page 2 should contain a short abstract of not more than 250 words, which should include facts
and conclusions, rather than citation of the areas and subject that have been treated or discussed. It is to be
followed by a maximum of six key words.

The paper should be organized as follows:
ABSTRACT (should not be more than 250 words)
Reference lists, figures, tables, and figures/list captions should all be on separate sheets, all of
which should be double-spaced, and numbered. Standard nomenclature should be used. Unfamiliar terms,
abbreviations, and symbols must be defined at first mention.
Adapted with modifications from UPV J. Nat. Sci.
References to the literature citations in the text should be presented by author and year; where there
are two authors, both should be named; with three or more only the first author’s name plus “et al.”
need to be given. Use only the family name/s of the author/s.
References in the text (i.e. in-text citation) should be cited as:
(Bush & Clinton, 1998) or Bush & Clinton (1998) (Arroyo et
al., 1999) or Arroyo et al. (1999)
The list of citation at the end of the paper should include only works mentioned in the text and
should be arranged alphabetically by the name of the author. References should be cited as follows:
Journal papers
name(s) and initial(s) of author(s), year, full title, name of the journal, volume
number, and first and last page numbers:
Adams, R.J., M. Wilson and M. Wu. 1997. Multilevel Item Response Models: An
approach to errors in variables regression. Journal of Educational and Behavioral
Statistics, 22:47-76.

name(s) of author(s), year, title of book, edition, place of publication, publisher, page number/s:
Doerr, P.H. 1993 Fundamentals of physical geography, Second Edition (IA, USA:
W.C Brown Publishers) 372 pp

Online References
Name (s) of author(s), month and year of publication, the title of the article and the universal resource locator
(URL), and date of access:

Authored by individuals or persons
Mofid, K. October 2002. Globalization and Business for the Common Good:
Theology and economics working together. Global Capitalism in Crisis. Available:
http://transnational.org/forum/meet/2002/mofid_ capitalism .htm (March 29, 2003).

Authored by an organization or committee
The International Committee on Guidelines and Principles for Social Impact
Assessment. May 2004. Guidelines and principles for social impact assessment.
Retrieved from http://www.lcopsia.assessmentguide/impact /bulletin.pdf (Accessed:
February 05, 2003).


The author/s is/are responsible for the accuracy of bibliographic references, and is/are requested to use as
few “in press” citations as possible. “In press” citations must include the name of the journal that has
accepted the paper.
Figures and graphs should always be mentioned in the text and numbered with Arabic numerals. Brief
descriptive caption should be provided for each figure or table on a separate page. At the lower hand corner,
the name of the authors and the figure number should be indicated.
Illustration Copy
Illustration Copy should comprise:
1. Line drawing should be of good quality and should not exceed 8 ½” x 11" size paper, with clear
legible inscriptions, even if reduced to 85% of their size.
2. Photographs/Illustrations: well-constructed photographic prints (not photocopies), trimmed at
night angels and in the desired final sized.
3. In the case of natural science researches, all organisms must be identified by the scientific binomen,
when possible.
4. Mathematical equations should be clearly presented so that they can be interpreted properly.
5. Obscure primes, symbols, and dots must be brought to the attention of the printer. Distinguish
very clearly number 1 and letter I. Use fractional exponents instead of root signs and the
solidos (/) for fractions wherever their use will save vertical space.
6. All equations must be numbered sequentially in Arabic numerals in parentheses on the
right-hand of the equations.
7. The authors should follow internationally accepted abbreviations, symbols, units, etc.
8. Less common abbreviations may be printed as footnotes.
For specific items and other concerns on the preparation of manuscripts for publication in the CNU
Journal of Higher Education, please refer to the American Psychological Association (APA) Editorial Style.